PHC 2016

Presentation References & Links

Slide 3 – To lose 1lb of fat1

Slides 4 & 5 – 1lb does not equal2-6

Slide 6 – Where does the calorie formula come from?(Link i)7

Slide 7 – Where does the calorie formula come from?8

Slide 9 – Animal vs plant fat [Link ii] (I may mention a quote from this paper).

Slide 11 – Animal vs plant fat [Link iii]

Slide 13 – Total & saturated fat9-16

Slides 15-18 – Cholesterol and deaths [Link iv]

Slides 20-22 – Whole grains vs other foods[Link v]


  2. Max Rubner, “Zeitschrift fur Biologie,” Festschrift zu Voit, (1901).
  3. Bozenraad, Deutsche Archives Internal Medicine, (1911).
  4. Geoffrey Livesey, “The Calorie Delusion: Why food labels are wrong”, New Scientist, (15 July 2009).
  5. FAO Food & Nutrition paper 77: “Food energy – methods of analysis and conversion factors”, Report of a Technical Workshop, Rome, (December 2002).
  6. Max Wishnofsky, “Caloric equivalents of gained or lost weight”, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, (1958).
  7. Lulu Hunt Peters, Diet and Health (with key to the calories), published by Chicago The Reilly and Lee Company, (1918).
  8. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE). Obesity: the prevention, identification, assessment and management of overweight and obesity in adults and children,. Clinical Guideline 43; 2006.
  9. Harcombe Z, Baker JS, Cooper SM, et al. Evidence from randomised controlled trials did not support the introduction of dietary fat guidelines in 1977 and 1983: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Open Heart 2015; 2(1).
  10. Patty W Siri-Tarino, Qi Sun, Frank B Hu and Ronald M Krauss, “Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, (March 2010).
  11. Skeaff CM, Miller J. Dietary fat and coronary heart disease: summary of evidence from prospective cohort and randomised controlled trials. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 2009.
  12. Mozaffarian D, Micha R, Wallace S. Effects on coronary heart disease of increasing polyunsaturated fat in place of saturated fat: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS Med. 2010;7:e1000252.
  13. Hooper L, Summerbell CD, Thompson R, et al. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 2011(7):CD002137 doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002137.
  14. Hooper L, Martin N, Abdelhamid A, Davey Smith G. Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015(6) doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011737.
  15. Chowdhury R, Warnakula S, Kunutsor S, et al. Association of Dietary, Circulating, and Supplement Fatty Acids With Coronary Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Ann. Intern. Med. 2014;160(6):398-406 doi: 10.7326/M13-1788.
  16. Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G. Dietary fatty acids in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression. BMJ Open 2014;4(4) doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-00448).


Link (i)

Link (ii):

Sirloin steak:





Olive oil:

1% fat milk:

Link (iii):



Whole wheat pita bread:

Sirloin steak:





Olive oil:

Link (iv)

Link (v):



Sunflower Seeds:



Whole wheat flour: