South Africa – Presentation 1, reference notes

Presentation References & Links

Slide 5 – The Obesity Epidemic in the UK1

Slide 6 – The Obesity Epidemic in the US2

Slide 7 – What happened c. 19803-6

Slide 8 – What happened c. 19806, 7

Slide 9 – Why did we change dietary advice – heart disease?8-11

Slide 10 – Why did we change dietary advice – cholesterol logic?12,13

Slide 11 – Why did we change dietary advice  the Seven Countries study?9, 14-17

Slide 12 – Were we right to change – RCTs?18-23

Slides 13-15 – Were we right to change – RCT evidence?24

Slides 16-19 – Were we right to change – cholesterol & CVD charts?[i]

Slide 20 – What did we change to?[ii]

Slide 21 – What are we now eating?

– 1,556 processed food calories25[iii]

– Flour consumption[iv]

– Sugar consumption[v]

– Foods that have gone down and up26

Slides 24-26 – USDA Database[vi]

Slide 28 – Obstacles to change27, 28

Slide 29 – American Dietitians conflicts29

Slide 30 – British Nutrition Foundation30

Slide 33 – Association for Dietetics in SA31


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  2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Health United States. In: Prevention CfDCa, editor.; 2006. p. 559.
  3. Carter J.P. Eating in America; Dietary Goals for the United States; Report of the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs US Senate. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press 1977.
  4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agriculture USDA. Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Washington: U.S. Government printing office; 1980.
  5. National Advisory Committee on Nutritional Education (NACNE). A discussion paper on proposals for nutritional guidelines for health education in Britain. 1983.
  6. Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA). Diet and cardiovascular disease: Report of the panel on diet in relation to cardiovascular disease. 1984.
  7. Tanner TH. The Practice of Medicine. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston; 1869.
  8. Anitschkow N. Über die Veränderungen der Kaninchenaorta bei experimenteller Cholesterinsteatose. Beitr Pathol Anat 1913; 56: 379-404.
  9. Keys A. Coronary heart disease in seven countries I. The study program and objectives. Circulation 1970; 41(I-1-I-8).
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Table 26. Leading causes of death and numbers of deaths, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, 1980 and 2007,. In: National Center for Health Statistics, editor.; 2011.
  11. Keys A, Anderson JT, Mickelsen O, Adelson SF, Fidanza F. Diet and Serum Cholesterol in Man: Lack of Effect of Dietary Cholesterol. The Journal of Nutrition 1956; 59(1): 39-56.
  12. Keys A, Anderson JT. The relationship of the diet to the development of atherosclerosis in man. In: National Research Council DoMS, ed. Symposium on atherosclerosis. Washington; 1955: 181-96.
  13. Keys, A., Mickelsen, O., Miller, E. v. O., and Chapman, C. B. (1950c) The Relation in Man between Cholesterol Levels in the Diet and in the Blood. Science. Vol.112(2899), pp.79-81.
  14. Keys A. Coronary heart disease in seven countries Summary. Circulation 1970; 41(I-186-I-195).
  15. Menotti A, Keys A, Kromhout D, et al. Inter-cohort differences in coronary heart disease mortality in the 25-year follow-up of the seven countries study. European journal of epidemiology 1993; 9(5): 527-36.
  16. Yerushalmy J, Hilleboe HE. Fat in the diet and mortality from heart disease; a methodologic note. N Y State J Med 1957; 57(14): 2343-54.
  17. Scragg R. Seasonality of cardiovascular disease mortality and the possible protective effect of ultra-violet radiation. Int J Epidemiol 1981; 10(4): 337-41.
  18. Rose GA, Thomson WB, Williams RT. Corn Oil in Treatment of Ischaemic Heart Disease. BMJ 1965; 1(5449): 1531-3.
  19. Research Committee. Low-fat diet in myocardial infarction: A controlled trial. The Lancet 1965; 2(7411): 501-4.
  20. Medical Research Council. Controlled trial of soya-bean oil in myocardial infarction: Report of a research committee to the Medical Research Council. The Lancet 1968; 292(7570): 693-700.
  21. Dayton S, Pearce ML, Hashomoto S, Dixon WJ, Tomiyasu U. A Controlled Clinical Trial of a Diet High in Unsaturated Fat in Preventing Complications of Atherosclerosis. Circulation 1969; 40(1S2): II-1-II-63.
  22. Leren P. The Oslo Diet-Heart Study. Circulation 1970; 42: 935-42.
  23. Woodhill JM, Palmer AJ, Leelarthaepin B, McGilchrist C, Blacket RB. Low fat, low cholesterol diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Advances in experimental medicine and biology 1978; 109: 317-30.
  24. Harcombe Z, Baker JS, Cooper SM, et al. Evidence from randomised controlled trials did not support the introduction of dietary fat guidelines in 1977 and 1983: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Open Heart 2015; 2(1).
  25. A National Statistics Publication. The Family Food Survey. In: DEFRA, editor.: The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs; 2012.
  26. Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries & Food. National Food Survey: Household Food Consumption Great Britain,. 1974-2000.
  27. PepsiCo. Annual Report, 2013.
  28. International Monetary Fund. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects. World Economic Outlook., 2014.
  29. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Annual Report, 2012.
  30. British Nutrition Foundation. Annual Report, 2013-14.
  31. of the most recent conference: sponsor:













Brown rice:


Cocoa Powder: