PHC 2018

Here are the references for my presentation at the PHC conference in London May 19th 2018. Much of the original work comes from my book “The Obesity Epidemic: What caused it? How can we stop it? (2010)”:


Ref 1: The Mayer definition of the first law polled 26% of 570 votes when given 31 different options – (Accessed 23 July 2010).

Ref 2: Tappy L. Thermic effect of food and sympathetic nervous system activity in humans. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 1996.

Ref 3: Jéquier E. Pathways to obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002.

Ref 4: Richard Feinman and Eugene Fine, “A calorie is a calorie violates the second law of thermodynamics”, Nutritional Journal, (2004).

Ref 5:

(PHC 2016 Presentation – where I showed 1lb does not equal 3,500 calories, is here.)

Ref  6: All correspondence details in “The Obesity Epidemic: What caused it? How can we stop it?” Harcombe. Z. Published by: Columbus Publishing. (2010)

Ref 7: Lulu Hunt Peters, Diet and Health (with key to the calories), published by Chicago The Reilly and Lee Company, (1918).

Ref 8: Francis G. Benedict. Human Vitality and efficiency under prolonged restricted diet: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1919.

Ref 9: Keys A, Brožek J, Henschel A, Mickelsen O, Taylor HL. The biology of human starvation: University of Minnesota Press, 1950.

Ref 10: Stunkard A M-HM. The results of treatment for obesity: A review of the literature and report of a series. A.M.A. Archives of Internal Medicine 1959.

Ref 11: Franz MJ, VanWormer JJ, Crain AL, et al. Weight-loss outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of weight-loss clinical trials with a minimum 1-year follow-up. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2007.

Ref 12: Gardner CD, Trepanowski JF, Del Gobbo LC, et al. Effect of low-fat vs low-carbohydrate diet on 12-month weight loss in overweight adults and the association with genotype pattern or insulin secretion: The dietfits randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2018.

Ref 13: Guo J, Brager DC, Hall KD. Simulating long-term human weight-loss dynamics in response to calorie restriction. The American journal of clinical nutrition 2018.

Ref 14: The Endemol programme Larger than Life: 33,000 calories a day, first aired on 13 December 2009, was a documentary about four morbidly obese people – Paul, Larry, Lisa and Jacqui. A couple of clips can be seen here and here (the quotation used in my presentation comes from the second clip at 2 mins 50 seconds in).

Ref 15: Lean MEJ, Leslie WS, Barnes AC, et al. Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open-label, cluster-randomised trial. The Lancet 2017.

Ref 16: This FAO document is also useful for the TEE section.

Ref 17: Gordon Wardlaw, Smith. A. Contemporary Nutrition. Seventh edition ed: McGraw Hill, 2009.

Ref 18: Any on-line calories burned calculator can be used. I used this one.

Ref 19: Dr Michael Eades’ presentation will be on open view soon. Meanwhile, here are two excellent posts on the presentation: and

Ref 20: